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Evolution and InnovationSave Biodiversity...Rise

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management  ( IPM ) is a system for reducing crop losses from insects, weeds and plant diseases. IPM uses all available control practices such as crop rotation (changing what's grown in a field), selecting resistant varieties (plants resistant to pests), mechanical cultivation, changing planting and harvesting times, biological control (using other living organisms to control pests), and chemical control ( if need be ...? ).
Using several methods of control is usually more effective than relying on a single pest management practice. One goal of IPM is to reduce pest damage to an acceptable level and minimize the risks of pesticides to human health and the environment.
Scouting fields for pests and basing treatment decisions on economic thresholds is an important part of IPM. The principle of using economic thresholds is that pests are not controlled until they reach a level that is economically damaging. The predicted loss from insects, weeds, or plant disease must be more than the cost of control. If the number of pests are not high enough to cause an economic yield loss, control is not recommended. In some cases, this means that pests are allowed to remain in the field.
Economic thresholds are based on how much damage a pest may cause if not controlled, the predicted crop yield, the estimated selling price, the cost of control, and other factors.
Crop losses to pests are a major problem in sustaining production, and often, pesticides are used as the first line of defense against pests. However, the indiscriminate use of pesticides often impacts negatively on beneficial insects – insects that provide essential ecosystem services such as natural pest control and pollination. While pesticide risk assessment procedures for honey bees have been well elaborated as part of pesticide evaluations, existing registration procedures are based only on the European honey bee – and not generally field-tested in developing countries.......... as per Food & Agriculture, united nations 



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