Translate
Edge core
Follow Us
Find Edge India Agrotech on TwitterFind Edge India Agrotech on FacebookFind Edge India Agrotech on YouTubeFind Edge India Agrotech on MySpaceFind Edge India Agrotech on LinkedIn
Edge India Group
Latest Snippets

Evolution and InnovationSave Biodiversity...Rise

Tomatos

 
Crop: Tomato
Scientific name: Lycopersicon esculantum
Family: Solanaceae
Fruit Borer: Helicoverpa armigera

Symptoms of damage:

  • Young larvae feed on tender foliage
  • Mature larvae bore circular holes
  • Thrust only a part of its body into fruit and eat the inner content
Larval damage Larval damage Adult damaged fruit

Identification of pest:

  • Eggs: Eggs are sculptured and creamy white in colour, laid singly
  • Larva: Shows colour variation from greenish to brown. It has dark brown grey lines on the body with lateral white lines and also has dark band 
  • Pupa: Brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris 
  • Adult: Female light pale brownish yellow stout moth, Male – Pale greenish moth V shaped speck.
    • Forewing: olive green to pale brown with a dark brown circular spot in the centre
    • Hindwing:  is pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin

Management:

  • Collect and destroy the infected fruits and grown up larvae
  • Grow simultaneously 40 days old American tall marigold and 25 days old tomato seedling at 1:16 rows
  • Setup pheromone trap with Helilure at 12/ha
  • Collection and destruction of damaged fruits and grown up caterpillars.
  • Release Trichogramma pretiosum @ 1 lakh nos. /ha/release at an interval of 7 days starting from flower initiation stage based on ETL of 10% damage.
  • For Helicoverpa armigera: HaNPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha i.e. NPV of H. armigera  0.43%  AS @ 3.0 ml/lit or 2 % AS @ 1.0 ml per lit
  • For Spodoptera litura: Sl NPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha
  • Provide poison bait with carbaryl 50 WP 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit/ha
  • Spray Bacillus thuringiensis 2g/lit or any one of the following insecticide 
Egg Larva
Pupa Adult


Insecticide
Dose
Azadirachtin 1.0 % EC (10000 ppm) 2.0 ml/ lit
Indoxacarb 14.5 % SC 8 ml/10 lit
Flubendiamide 20 WG 5 g/10 lit
Novaluron 10 % EC 7.5 ml/10 lit
Phosalone 35 % EC 13 ml/10 lit
Quinalphos 25 % EC 1.0 ml/ lit
Serpentine leaf miner: Liriomyza trifolii

Symptoms of damage:

  • Leaves with serpentine mines
  • Drying and dropping of leaves

Identification of pest:

  • Larva: Minute orange yellowish apodous maggots
  • Pupa: Yellowish brown pupates within mines
  • Adult: Pale yellow in colour

Management:

  • Collect and destroy mined leaves
  • Spray NSKE 5%

Leaf mining damage Dried leaves

 

Leaf eating caterpillar: Spodoptera litura



Symptoms of damage:

  • Young larva scrap leaves on ventral surface
  • Grownups defoliate crops

Larval feeding Scrabbing Foliar damage Flower damage



Identification of pest:

  • Egg: Masses appear golden brown
  • Larva: Pale greenish with dark markings, gregarious in the early stages
  • Adult: Brownish in colour, Forewings are brown colour with wavy white marking, Hind wings are white colour with a brown patch along the margin

 

Larva Adult
Management:
  • Plough the soil to expose and kill the pupae
  • Grow castor along border and irrigation channel as trap crop
  • Set up light trap @1/ha
  • Pheromone traps (Pherodin SL) @15/ ha to attract male moths
  • Collect and destroy egg masses in castor and tomato
  • Hand pick grown up larvae and kill them
  • Spray Sl NPV @ 1.5 X 1012 POBs / ha+2.5 Kg crude sugar+0.1 % teepol
  • Poison bait: Rice bran 5 Kg + Molasses or Brown sugar 500g + Carbaryl 50 WP 500g+ 3lit of water/ha. Mix the ingredients well and are kept around the field in the evening hours
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2 lit/ha or dichlorovos 76 WSC 1 lit/ha
Whitefly:  Bemisia tabaci

Symptoms of damage:

  • Chlorotic spots
  • Yellowing
  • Downward curling and drying of leaves
  • Vector of tomato leaf curl disease

Fruit damage Silvery damage Tomato leaf curling

Identification of pest

  • Egg: Pear shaped, light yellowish, stalked
  • Nymph: On hatching - Oval, scale-like, greenish white
  • Adult: White, tiny, scale-like adults

Management:

  • Uproot and destroy the diseased leaf curl plants
  • Use nitrogen and irrigation judiciously.
  • Remove alternate weed host Abutilon indicum
  • Use yellow sticky traps at 12/ha to attract and kill insects.
  • Apply carbofuran 3% G @ 40 kg /ha or spray any one of the following insecticides


    Insecticide
    Dose
    Dimethoate 30 % EC 1.0  ml/lit.
    Malathion 50 % EC 1.5 ml/ lit.
    Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC 1.0 ml/ lit.
    Thiamethoxam 25 % WG 4.0  ml/10 lit.
Nymphs and adult
Thrips: Thrips tabaciF. rankliniella

Symptoms of damage:

  • Silvery streaks on leaf surface
  • Pre-mature dropping of flowers
  • Bud necrosis.
  • Vector of tomato spotted wilt virus.

Identification of pest:

  • Nymphs: Yellowish
  • Adult: Dark coloured with fringed wings

Management:

  • Mechanically uproot the diseased plants and destroy them
  • Use yellow sticky traps @ 15/ha
  • Release larvae of Chrysoperla cornea @10,000/ha
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC @1lit/ha or dimethoate 30 EC @1lit/ha
Thrips
Striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata

Symptoms of damage:

  • Presence of white, cottony mealy bugs on the leaves and twigs
  • Stunted growth

Identification of pest:

  • Crawler: Yellowish to pale white in colour
  • Adult: Females apterous, long, slender covered with white waxy secretion

Management:

  • Spray FORS 25g/lit or neem oil 0.5% along with teepol 1 ml/lit
  • Spray any following insecticides
    • Phosphomidon 40 SL 2ml/lit
    • Imidacloprid 80.5 SC 0.6 ml/lit
    • Chlorpriphos 20 EC 2ml/lit
    • Thiamethoxam 25 WSG 0.6 mg/lit
    • Profenophos 2ml/lit
Mealy bug on tomato plants
Red spider mite: Tetranychus spp

Symptoms of damage:

  • Affected leaves become reddish brown and bronzy
  • Severe infestation larvae silken webbing on the leaves, wither and dry
  • Flower and fruit formation affected

Identification of pest:

  • Eggs: Hyaline, globular laid in mass
  • Nymphs: Yellowish in colour
  • Adult: Red coloured small sized

Management:

  • Spray wettable sulphur 50 WP 2g/lit or dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5 ml/lit
Infestation on tomato Red spider mite

Source of images:

Image 1: http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/spmweb

Image 2: http://www.dnw.boku.ac.at/fileadmin/_/H95/H953/Angewandte_Entomologie/WS...


Search
Edge Gallery

The Silent Killer......

Organic Streams.....

E
arth Day....

Fungus can save the world